The Dzuku Valley with its surrounding hill ranges is one of the biodiversity-rich ecosystems in the northeast region of India. Dzuku valley is an attractive, naturally beautiful area on the border of Nagaland and Manipur, where the Dzuku, a tributary of the Barak river, flows through. The hills are uniformly covered with short and tall bamboo, grasses and other flora. Some of the hillocks have Broadleaf Temperate Forest, providing habitat for Blyth's Tragopan Tragopan blythii and other birds of tropical forests. Dzuku is famous for the Dzuku Lily Lilium chitrangadae, endemic to the Dzuku Valley. The valley receives tremendous numbers of local tourists during the flowering seasons. The name is derived from the Mao Pukmai language. Dzu means cold or frozen and ku means water. Hence, it is literally called frozen water. During winter, the slow moving river is covered with a thin layer of ice (Ranjan Singh 1995). The Dzuku Valley enjoys a cold temperate climate with a severe winter, and heavy rainfall during the monsoon (Ranjan Singh 1995).
Pulie Badze Wildlife Sanctuary (923 ha) is an important catchment area of Kohima town. The high hills of the Sanctuary overlook Kohima. Dzukou valley (10,000 ha) and Japfu peak, two important features in the area are located adjacent to the Sanctuary, and have been included in this IBA. The Japfu (Japvo) peak rises to about 3,048 m and is the second highest peak after the Saramati at 3,826 m. The Khonoma Nature Conservation and Tragopan Sanctuary, another important community protected area (also on IBA), is adjacent to this IBA. All these four sites form a single large continuous area of 20,000 ha or more, and are very important for avifauna conservation in southern Nagaland. Being close to the state capital, Pulie Badze is witness to extensive anthropogenic pressure in the form of land grabbing, grazing cattle, firewood collection and hunting.